Pennsylvania S Corporation and Asset Protection
Pennsylvania S Corporation:
The difference between a "C" corporation and an "S" corporation is a tax distinction only. The shareholders may elect that the corporation be taxed as a "C" corporation, meaning that it will be taxed under subchapter C of the Internal Revenue Code or an "S" corporation being taxed under subchapter S of the Internal Revenue Code. If no election is made, the corporation is automatically taxed as a "C" corporation.
For tax purposes, the "S" corporation has a single tax imposed at the shareholder level while a "C" corporation has a tax imposed both at the corporate level and then again when the corporation makes a distribution to the shareholders.
S Corporation Definition
-A corporation with 75 or fewer shareholders,that has elected and qualified for a special tax status with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).
The main advantage associated with the S Corporation
is that the income passes through to the shareholders, therefore avoiding a perceived double taxation of a C-Corporation.
Should I form a Pennsylvania S Corporation?
The S Corporation:
An "S Corporation" is a corporation that elects to be taxed under Subchapter S of the Internal Revenue Code (enacted in 1958
and periodically amended) and receives IRS approval of its request for Subchapter S status. As a legal entity (an artificial person), the S Corporation
is separate and distinct from the corporation's owners (the stockholders). Under Pennsylvania incorporation law, there is no distinction between a C corporation
and an S corporation.
Pennsylvania S Corporation:
Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages of the S Corporation:
- The independent life of the corporation makes possible its continuation, and the relatively undisturbed continued
operation of the business regardless of incapacity or death of one or more stockholders.
- Fractional ownership shares are easily accommodated in the initial offering of stock.
- The purchase, sale, and gifting of stock make it possible to have changes in ownership without disturbing the corporation's ability to conduct business.
- The requirement that the corporation's finances and records be separate from the finances and records of stockholders
reduces the risk of unrecognized equity liquidations.
- With only a few exceptions, under the Subchapter S election for taxation as a partnership the S corporation pays no
income taxes and corporation income or loss is passed through direct to the stockholders.
- To the extent the corporate shield is maintained and other investments and savings of the stockholders are not at risk, the personal life of stockholders is simplified.
- The annual meetings of stockholders and consultations with legal counsel can provide stimulus for improved communication
within the stockholder group (often a family group) and can provide more comprehensive guidance for management.
- Depending on the corporation's business record and the policies and practices of prospective lenders, access to credit
and the ability to secure needed resources may be improved.
- Earnings representing "return on investment" (interest, rental payments, etc.) are not subject to self-employment tax as long as stockholder-employees receive adequate compensation for labor and management of the business.
- Lenders may require personal guarantees from corporate officers as a condition of supplying credit, thus negating the
limitation of liability.
- Conflicts or disagreements among the stockholders may immobilize decision making.
- Restrictions on the sale of stock and/or buy-back agreements included in the bylaws may prevent minority stockholders
from being able to recover the value of their investment in the corporation.
- Through the processes of gifting and inheritance, stock ownership can become divided among many persons who are not
active in the business and they may become a voting block that does not support needs and decisions believed desirable by
- Over time, corporation paid benefits for stockholder-employees may become costly and exceed the ability of the business
- Employment benefits such as life insurance, health insurance, and housing costs are taxable income to stockholder
employees with 2 percent or more stock ownership and to employees who are directly related to persons owning 2 percent
or more of the corporation stock.
- If appreciated assets are owned by the corporation and the corporation is dissolved, significant income taxes on the
appreciation amount will be generated.
Pennsylvania's 2012 Business Tax Climate Ranks 19th
Pennsylvania ranks 19th in the Tax State Business Tax Climate Index. The Index compares the states in five areas of taxation that impact business: corporate taxes; individual income taxes; sales taxes; unemployment insurance taxes; and taxes on property, including residential and commercial property.
Pennsylvania's Individual Income Tax System
Pennsylvania's personal income tax system consists of a flat rate of 3.07% on all personal income. Pennsylvania's top rate ranks 40th highest among states levying an individual income tax. However, many Pennsylvania taxpayers also pay a local tax on earned income, commonly 1% or 1.5%, with Philadelphia well above that. Pennsylvania's 2006 individual income tax collections at both state and local levels came to $995 per person, which ranked 16th highest nationally.
Pennsylvania's Corporate Income Tax System
Pennsylvania's corporate tax structure consists of a flat rate of 9.99% on all corporate income. Among states levying corporate income taxes, Pennsylvania's rate ranks 2nd highest nationally. In 2007, state-level corporate tax collections (excluding local taxes) were $184 per capita, which ranked 17th highest nationally.
Pennsylvania Levies Sales Tax Above National Median
Gasoline Tax among Highest Nationally
Pennsylvania levies a 6% general sales or use tax on consumers, right at the national median. State and local governments combined collected $695 per capita in general sales taxes in 2006, which ranks 39th highest nationally. Pennsylvania's gasoline tax stands at 32.3 cents per gallon, ranking 10th highest nationally. Pennsylvania's cigarette tax stands at $1.35 per pack of twenty and ranks 21st highest nationally. The sales tax was adopted in 1953, the gasoline tax in 1921 and the cigarette tax in 1937.
Pennsylvania Property Taxes: Middle of the Pack
Pennsylvania is one of the 37 states that collect property taxes at both the state and local levels. As in most states, local governments collect far more. Pennsylvania's localities collected $1,142.79 per capita in property taxes in fiscal year 2006, which is the latest year the Census Bureau published state-by-state property tax collections. At the state level, Pennsylvania collected $4.88 per capita during FY 2006, making its combined state/local property taxes $1,147.68, which ranks 20th highest nationally.
State property tax collections per capita by state
Federal Tax Burdens and Expenditures: Pennsylvania is a Beneficiary State
Pennsylvania taxpayers receive slightly more federal funding per dollar of federal taxes paid compared to the average state. Per dollar of Federal tax collected in 2005, Pennsylvania citizens received approximately $1.07 in the way of federal spending. This ranks the state 28th nationally and represents a rise from 1995 when Pennsylvania received $1.05 per dollar of federal taxes paid and ranked 28th nationally.
Reference - Tax Foundation